Many people have the idea that cosmetic facial surgery is all about the nose and wrinkles. But it isn’t. Beauty is no longer just skin deep. The bones that lie underneath the skin determine the facial structure, shape and contours and therefore are the very foundation of a beautiful face.
Beauty has been assessed and analyzed from time immemorial by scientists, artists, philosophers and even historians.
All beautiful faces regardless of race, age, sex, and other variables are said to conform to Da Vinci’s Divine Proportion. They say that the human face abounds with examples of the Golden Section or Divine Proportion. The head is supposed to form a golden rectangle with the eyes at its midpoint. The mouth and nose are each placed at golden sections of the distance between the eyes and the tip of the chin.
There have been several calculations too… Ideal height and width of a beautiful face is also said to conform to the divine proportion. If the distance between the two cheeks is 1, then the ideal height is 1.618(phi). The front two incisor teeth form a golden rectangle, with a phi ratio in the height to the width. The ratio of the width of the first tooth to the second tooth from the center is also phi. The ratio of the width of the smile to the third tooth from the center is phi as well.
But the smile-architects the Maxillofacial Surgeons, have divined more specific norms for the angulations of the bones and the teeth. The features of a normal face have been laid out as mathematical calculations by these specialists so that deviations from normal can be actually calculated rather than just guessed. While such intricate calculations are the basis by which the surgeons determine the nature of the defect, plan treatment and communicate with each other, the common man can also determine, to a certain extent the nature of the defect by assessing a few landmarks and their position with respect to each-other.
The most common landmarks that are assessed are the upper row of teeth (specially the front teeth), lower row of teeth (the front teeth), base of the nose, nasal tip, and the root of the nose, fore-head and the chin. The soft tissue land marks are the chin, the upper lip, lower lip and the nose.
The desired alignment of the teeth and the lips are set such that the upper jaw, (visualized as the upper teeth and the upper lip) are placed 2mm ahead (forward) than the lower (jaw teeth and lip.)